SystemTap

Overview

SystemTap is a tool that can be used to dynamically monitor and track the process of running. CUBRID supports SystemTap; therefore, it is possible to find the cause of a performance bottleneck.

The basic idea of ​​SystemTap script is that you can specify the name of the event and grant a handler there. Handler is script statements that specify the action to be performed each time an event occurs.

To monitor the performance of CUBRID using SystemTap, you need to install SystemTap. After installing SystemTap, you can write and run a SystemTap script which is like a C language. With this script, you can monitor the performance of the System.

SystemTap supports only on Linux.

See http://sourceware.org/systemtap/index.html for further information and installation.

Installing SystemTap

Checking Installation

  1. Check if you have group accounts, stapusr and stapdev in /etc/group file. If they don’t exist, SystemTap may not be installed.

  2. Add CUBRID user account when you install CUBRID into stapusr and stapdev group accounts. Here let’s assume the CUBRID user account as “cubrid”.

    $ vi /etc/group
    
    stapusr:x:156:cubrid
    stapdev:x:158:cubrid
    
  3. To check if SystemTap is runnable, simply run the below command.

    $ stap -ve 'probe begin { log("hello world") exit() }'
    

Version

To execute SystemTap scripts in CUBRID, you should use SystemTap 2.2 or higher.

The below is an example to install SystemTap in CentOS 6.3. Checking version and installing SystemTap can be different among Linux distributors.

  1. Check the current version of the installed SystemTap.

    $ sudo yum list|grep  systemtap
    systemtap.x86_64                       1.7-5.el6_3.1                 @update
    systemtap-client.x86_64                1.7-5.el6_3.1                 @update
    systemtap-devel.x86_64                 1.7-5.el6_3.1                 @update
    systemtap-runtime.x86_64               1.7-5.el6_3.1                 @update
    systemtap-grapher.x86_64               1.7-5.el6_3.1                 update
    systemtap-initscript.x86_64            1.7-5.el6_3.1                 update
    systemtap-sdt-devel.i686               1.7-5.el6_3.1                 update
    systemtap-sdt-devel.x86_64             1.7-5.el6_3.1                 update
    systemtap-server.x86_64                1.7-5.el6_3.1                 update
    systemtap-testsuite.x86_64             1.7-5.el6_3.1                 update
    
  2. If the lower version of SystemTap than 2.2 version is installed, remove it.

    $ sudo yum remove systemtap-runtime
    $ sudo yum remove systemtap-devel
    $ sudo yum remove systemtap
    
  3. Install the RPM distributed package of SystemTap 2.2 or higher. You can find the RPM distributed package in http://rpmfind.net/linux/rpm2html/.

    $ sudo rpm -ivh systemtap-devel-2.3-3.el6.x86_64.rpm
    $ sudo rpm -ivh systemtap-runtime-2.3-3.el6.x86_64.rpm
    $ sudo rpm -ivh systemtap-client-2.3-3.el6.x86_64.rpm
    $ sudo rpm -ivh systemtap-2.3-3.el6.x86_64.rpm
    

Using SystemTap in CUBRID

Building CUBRID source

SystemTap can be used only on Linux.

To use SystemTap by building CUBRID source, ENABLE_SYSTEMTAP is ON which is set by default.

This option is already included in the release build, a user not building the CUBRID source but installing CUBRID with the installation package can also use SystemTap script.

The below is an example of building the CUBRID source.

build.sh -m release

Running SystemTap script

Examples of SystemTap scripts in CUBRID are located in $CUBRID/share/systemtap directory.

The below is an example of running buffer_access.stp file.

cd $CUBRID/share/systemtap/scripts
stap -k buffer_access.stp -o result.txt

Printing Results

When you run a certain script, it displays the requested result to the console by the script code. With “-o filename” option, it writes the requested result to the filename.

The below is the result of the above example.

Page buffer hit count: 172
Page buffer miss count: 172
Miss ratio: 50

CUBRID markers

A very useful feature of SystemTap is the possibility of placing markers in the user source code (CUBRID code) and writing probes that triggers when these markers are reached. Below is the list of CUBRID markers and their meaning.

Connection markers

We might be interested in gathering information helpful for an analysis related to connection activity (number of connections, duration of individual connections, average duration of a connection, maximum number of connections achieved etc.) during a period of time. In order for such monitoring scripts to be written, we must provide at least two helpful markers: connection-start and connection-end.

conn_start(connection_id, user)

This marker is triggered when the query execution process on the server has begun.

Parameters:
  • connection_id – an integer containing the connection ID.
  • user – The username used by this connection.
conn_end(connection_id, user)

This marker is triggered when the query execution process on the server has ended.

Parameters:
  • connection_id – an integer containing the connection ID.
  • user – The username used by this connection.

Query markers

Markers for query execution related events can prove very useful in monitor tasks, although they do not contain global information related to the entire system. At least two markers are essential: those corresponding to the start of the execution of a query and the end of the execution.

query_exec_start(query_string, query_id, connection_id, user)

This marker is triggered after the query execution has begun on the server.

Parameters:
  • query_string – string representing the query to be executed
  • query_id – Query identifier
  • connection_id – Connection ID
  • user – The username used by this connection
query_exec_end(query_string, query_id, connection_id, user, status)

This marker is triggered when the query execution process on the server has ended.

Parameters:
  • query_string – string representing the query to be executed
  • query_id – Query identifier
  • connection_id – Connection ID
  • user – The username used by this connection
  • status – The status returned by the query execution (Success, Error)

Object operation markers

Operations involving the storage engine are critical and probing updates in a table at object level can greatly help monitor database activity. Markers will be triggered for each object inserted/updated/deleted, which may bring performance drawbacks on both the monitoring scripts and the server.

obj_insert_start(table)

This marker is triggered before an object is inserted.

Parameters:table – Target table of the operation
obj_insert_end(table, status)

This marker is triggered after an object has been inserted.

Parameters:
  • table – Target table of the operation
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended with success or not
obj_update_start(table)

This marker is triggered before an object is updated.

Parameters:table – Target table of the operation
obj_update_end(table, status)

This marker is triggered after an object has been updated

Parameters:
  • table – Target table of the operation
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended with success or not
obj_deleted_start(table)

This marker is triggered before an object is deleted.

Parameters:table – Target table of the operation
obj_delete_end(table, status)

This marker is triggered after an object has been deleted.

Parameters:
  • table – Target table of the operation
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended with success or not

Index operation markers

The object operation markers presented above are table-related, but below are index-related markers.

Indexes and their misuse can be the cause of many problems in a system and the possibility of monitoring them can be very helpful. The proposed markers are similar to those used for tables, since indexes support the same operations.

idx_insert_start(classname, index_name)

This marker is triggered before an insertion in the B-Tree.

Parameters:
  • classname – Name of the class having the target index
  • index_name – Target index of the operation
idx_insert_end(classname, index_name, status)

This marker is triggered after an insertion in the B-Tree.

Parameters:
  • classname – Name of the class having the target index
  • index_name – Target index_name of the operation
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended with success or not
idx_update_start(classname, index_name)

This marker is triggered before an update in the B-Tree.

Parameters:
  • classname – Name of the class having the target index
  • index_name – Target index_name of the operation
idx_update_end(classname, index_name, status)

This marker is triggered after an update in the B-Tree.

Parameters:
  • classname – Name of the class having the target index
  • index_name – Target index_name of the operation
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended with success or not
idx_delete_start(classname, index_name)

This marker is triggered before a deletion in the B-Tree.

Parameters:
  • classname – Name of the class having the target index
  • index_name – Target index_name of the operation
idx_delete_end(classname, index_name, status)

This marker is triggered after a deletion in the B-Tree.

Parameters:
  • classname – Name of the class having the target index
  • index_name – Target index_name of the operation
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended with success or not

Locking markers

Markers that involve locking events are perhaps the most important for global monitoring tasks. The locking system has a deep impact on the server performance and a comprehensive analysis on lock waiting times and count, number of deadlocks and aborted transactions is very useful in finding problems.

lock_acquire_start(OID, table, type)

This marker is triggered before a lock is requested.

Parameters:
  • OID – Target object of the lock request.
  • table – Table holding the object
  • type – Lock type (X_LOCK, S_LOCK etc.)
lock_acquire_end(OID, table, type, status)

This marker is triggered after a lock request has been completed.

Parameters:
  • OID – Target object of the lock request.
  • table – Table holding the object
  • type – Lock type (X_LOCK, S_LOCK etc.)
  • status – Value showing whether the request has been granted or not.
lock_release_start(OID, table, type)

This marker is triggered before a lock is released.

Parameters:
  • OID – Target object of the lock request.
  • table – Table holding the object
  • type – Lock type (X_LOCK, S_LOCK etc.)
lock_release_end(OID, table, type)

This marker is triggered after a lock release operation has been completed.

Parameters:
  • OID – Target object of the lock request
  • table – Table holding the object
  • type – Lock type(X_LOCK, S_LOCK etc)

Transaction markers

Another interesting measure in server monitoring is transaction activity. A simple example: the number of transactions aborted is closely related to the number of deadlocks occurred, a very important performance indicator. Another straightforward use of such markers is the availability of a simple method of gathering system performance statistics such as TPS by using a simple SystemTap script.

tran_commit(tran_id)

This marker is triggered after a transaction completes successfully.

Parameters:tran_id – Transaction identifier.
tran_abort(tran_id, status)

This marker is triggered after a transaction has been aborted.

Parameters:
  • tran_id – Transaction identifier.
  • status – Exit status.
tran_start(tran_id)

This marker is triggered after a transaction is started.

Parameters:tran_id – Transaction identifier.
tran_deadlock()

This marker is triggered when a deadlock has been detected.

I/O markers

I/O access is the main bottleneck of a RDBMS and we should provide markers that allow the monitoring of I/O performance. The markers should be placed in a manner that will make it possible for user scripts to measure I/O page access time and aggregate various and complex statistics based on this measure.

pgbuf_hit()

This marker is triggered when a requested page was found in the page buffer and there is no need to retrieve it from disk.

pgbuf_miss()

This marker is triggered when a requested page was not found in the page buffer and it must be retrieved from disk.

io_write_start(query_id)

This marker is triggered when a the process of writing a page onto disk has begun.

Parameters:query_id – Query identifier
io_write_end(query_id, size, status)

This marker is triggered when a the process of writing a page onto disk has ended.

Parameters:
  • query_id – Query identifier
  • size – number of bytes written
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended successfully or not
io_read_start(query_id)

This marker is triggered when a the process of reading a page from disk has begun.

Parameters:query_id – Query identifier
io_read_end(query_id, size, status)

This marker is triggered when a the process of reading a page from disk has ended.

Parameters:
  • query_id – Query identifier
  • size – number of bytes read
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended successfully or not

Other markers

sort_start()

This marker is triggered when a sort operation is started.

sort_end(nr_rows, status)

This marker is triggered when a sort operation has been completed.

Parameters:
  • nr_rows – number of rows sorted
  • status – Value showing whether the operation ended successfully or not