PDO Driver

The official CUBRID PHP Data Objects (PDO) driver is available as a PECL package and it implements the PDO interface to enable access from PDO to CUBRID.PDO is available with PHP 5.1. For PHP 5.0, you can use it as a PECL extension. PDO cannot run with earlier versions of PHP 5.0 because it requires the new OO features in the core of PHP 5.0.

PDO provides a data-access abstraction layer, which means that, regardless of which database you are using, you use the same functions to issue queries and fetch data; PDO does not provide a database abstraction. Using PDO as a database interface layer can have important advantages over “direct” PHP database drivers as follows:

  • Portable PHP code between different databases and database abstraction.
  • Supports SQL parameters and bind.
  • Safer SQLs (syntax verification, escaping, it helps protect against SQL injections etc.)
  • Cleaner programming model

In particular, having a CUBRID PDO driver means that any application that uses PDO as a database interface should work with CUBRID.

CUBRID PDO driver is based on CCI API so affected by CCI configurations such as CCI_DEFAULT_AUTOCOMMIT.

Installing and Configuring PDO

Linux

Requirements

Installing CUBRID PHP Driver using PECL

If PECL package has been installed on your system, the installation of CUBRID PDO driver is straightforward. PECL will download and compile the driver for you.

  1. Enter the following command to install the latest version of CUBRID PDO driver.

    sudo pecl install pdo_cubrid
    

    If you need earlier versions of the driver, you can install exact versions as follows:

    sudo pecl install pdo_cubrid-8.3.1.0003
    

    During the installation, you will be prompted to enter CUBRID base install dir autodetect :. Just to make sure your installation goes smoothly, enter the full path to the directory where you have CUBRID installed. For example, if CUBRID has been installed at /home/cubridtest/CUBRID, then enter /home/cubridtest/CUBRID.

  2. Edit the configuration file.

    • If you are using CentOS 6.0 and later or Fedora 15 and later, create a file named pdo_cubrid.ini, enter a command line extension=pdo_cubrid.so, and store the file in the /etc/php.d directory.

    • If you are using earlier versions of Cent0S or Fedora 15, edit the php.ini file (default location: /etc/php5/apache2 or /etc/) and add the following two command lines at the end of the file.

      [CUBRID]
      extension=pdo_cubrid.so
      
  3. Restart the web server to apply changes.

Windows

Requirements

Downloading and Installing Compiled CUBRID PDO Driver

First, download CUBRID PHP/PDO driver of which versions match the versions of your operating system and PHP installed at http://www.cubrid.org/?mid=downloads&item=php_driver&os=windows&ostype=any&php=any&driver_type=pdo.

After you download the driver, you will see the php_cubrid.dll file for CUBRID PHP driver or the php_pdo_cubrid.dll file for CUBRID PDO driver. Follow the steps below to install it.

  1. Copy this driver to the default PHP extensions directory (usually located at C:\Program Files\PHP\ext).

  2. Set your system environment. Check if the environment variable PHPRC is C:\Program Files\PHP and system variable path is added with %PHPRC% and %PHPRC%\ext.

  3. Edit php.ini (C:\Program Files\PHP\php.ini) and add the following two lines at the end of the php.ini file.

    [PHP_PDO_CUBRID]
    extension=php_pdo_cubrid.dll
    

    For CUBRID PHP driver, add command lines below.

    [PHP_PDO_CUBRID]
    extension = php_pdo_cubrid.dll
    
  4. Restart your web server to apply changes.

PDO Programming

Data Source Name (DSN)

The PDO_CUBRID data source name (DSN) consists of the following elements:

Element Description
DSN prefix The DSN prefix is cubrid.
host The hostname on which the database server resides
port The port number where the database server is listening
dbname The name of the database

Example

"cubrid:host=127.0.0.1;port=33000;dbname=demodb"

Predefined Constants

The constants defined by CUBRID PDO driver are available only when the extension has been either compiled into PHP or dynamically loaded at runtime. In addition, these driver-specific constants should only be used if you are using PDO driver. Using driver-specific attributes with another driver may result in unexpected behavior.

The PDO::getAttribute() function may be used to obtain the PDO_ATTR_DRIVER_NAME attribute value to check the driver if your code can run.

The constants below can be used with the PDO::cubrid_schema function to get schema information.

Constant Type Description
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_TABLE integer Gets name and type of table in CUBRID.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_VIEW integer Gets name and type of view in CUBRID.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_QUERY_SPEC integer Get the query definition of view.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_ATTRIBUTE integer Gets the attributes of table column.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_TABLE_ATTRIBUTE integer Gets the attributes of table.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_TABLE_METHOD integer Gets the instance method. The instance method is a method called by a class instance. It is used more often than the class method because most operations are executed in the instance.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_METHOD_FILE integer Gets the information of the file where the method of the table is defined.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_SUPER_TABLE integer Gets the name and type of table which table inherits attributes from.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_SUB_TABLE integer Gets the name and type of table which inherits attributes from this table.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_CONSTRAINT integer Gets the table constraints.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_TRIGGER integer Gets the table triggers.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_TABLE_PRIVILEGE integer Gets the privilege information of table.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_COL_PRIVILEGE integer Gets the privilege information of column.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_DIRECT_SUPER_TABLE integer Gets the direct super table of table.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_DIRECT_PRIMARY_KEY integer Gets the table primary key.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_IMPORTED_KEYS integer Gets imported keys of table.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_EXPORTED_KEYS integer Gets exported keys of table.
PDO::CUBRID_SCH_CROSS_REFERENCE integer Gets reference relationship of two tables.

PDO Sample Program

Verifying CUBRID PDO Driver Version

If you want to verify that the CUBRID PDO driver is accessible, you can use the PDO::getAvailableDrivers () function.

<?php
echo'PDO Drivers available:
';
foreach(PDO::getAvailableDrivers()as $driver)
{
if($driver =="cubrid"){
echo" - Driver: <b>".$driver.'</b>
';
}else{
echo" - Driver: ".$driver.'
';
}
}
?>

This script will output all the currently installed PDO drivers:

PDO Drivers available:
- Driver: mysql
- Driver: pgsql
- Driver: sqlite
- Driver: sqlite2
- Driver: cubrid

Connecting to CUBRID

Use the data source name (DSN) to connect to the database server. For details about DSN, see Data Source Name (DSN).

Below is a simple PHP example script which performs a PDO connection to the CUBRID demodb database. You can notice that errors are handling in PDO by using a try-catch mechanism and the connection is closed by assigning NULL to the connection object.

<?php
$database ="demodb";
$host ="localhost";
$port ="30000";//use default value
$username ="dba";
$password ="";

try{
//cubrid:host=localhost;port=33000;dbname=demodb
$conn_str ="cubrid:dbname=".$database.";host=".$host.";port=".$port;
echo"PDO connect string: ".$conn_str."
";
$db =new PDO($conn_str, $username, $password );
echo"PDO connection created ok!"."
";
$db = null;//disconnect
}catch(PDOException $e){
echo"Error: ".$e->getMessage()."
";
}
?>

If connection succeeds, the output of this script is as follows:

PDO connect string: cubrid:dbname=demodb;host=localhost;port=30000
PDO connection created ok!

Executing a SELECT Statement

In PDO, there is more than one way to execute SQL queries.

  • Using the query () function
  • Using prepared statements (see prepare ()/ execute ()) functions)
  • Using the exec () function

The example script below shows the simplest one - using the query () function. You can retrieve the return values from the resultset (a PDOStatement object) by using the column names, like $rs[“column_name”].

Note that when you use the query () function, you must ensure that the query code is properly escaped. For information about escaping, see PDO::quote () function.

<?php
include("_db_config.php");
include("_db_connect.php");

$sql ="SELECT * FROM code";
echo"Executing SQL: <b>".$sql.'</b>
';
echo'
';

try{
foreach($db->query($sql)as $row){
echo $row['s_name'].' - '. $row['f_name'].'
';
}
}catch(PDOException $e){
echo $e->getMessage();
}

$db = null;//disconnect
?>

The output of the script is as follows:

Executing SQL: SELECT * FROM code

X - Mixed
W - Woman
M - Man
B - Bronze
S - Silver
G - Gold

Executing an UPDATE Statement

The following example shows how to execute an UPDATE statement by using a prepared statement and parameters. You can use the exec () function as an alternative.

<?php
include("_db_config.php");
include("_db_connect.php");

$s_name ='X';
$f_name ='test';
$sql ="UPDATE code SET f_name=:f_name WHERE s_name=:s_name";

echo"Executing SQL: <b>".$sql.'</b>
';
echo'
';

echo":f_name: <b>".$f_name.'</b>
';
echo'
';
echo":s_name: <b>".$s_name.'</b>
';
echo'
';

$qe = $db->prepare($sql);
$qe->execute(array(':s_name'=>$s_name,':f_name'=>$f_name));

$sql ="SELECT * FROM code";
echo"Executing SQL: <b>".$sql.'</b>
';
echo'
';

try{
foreach($db->query($sql)as $row){
echo $row['s_name'].' - '. $row['f_name'].'
';
}
}catch(PDOException $e){
echo $e->getMessage();
}

$db = null;//disconnect
?>

The output of the script is as follows:

Executing SQL: UPDATE code SET f_name=:f_name WHERE s_name=:s_name

:f_name: test

:s_name: X

Executing SQL: SELECT * FROM code

X - test
W - Woman
M - Man
B - Bronze
S - Silver
G - Gold

Using prepare and bind

Prepared statements are one of the major features offered by PDO and you can take following benefits by using them.

  • SQL prepared statements need to be parsed only once even if they are executed multiple times with different parameter values. Therefore, using a prepared statement minimizes the resources and ,in general, the prepared statements run faster.
  • It helps to prevent SQL injection attacks by eliminating the need to manually quote the parameters; however, if other parts of the SQL query are being built up with unescaped input, SQL injection is still possible.

The example script below shows how to retrieve data by using a prepared statement.

<?php
include("_db_config.php");
include("_db_connect.php");

$sql ="SELECT * FROM code WHERE s_name NOT LIKE :s_name";
echo"Executing SQL: <b>".$sql.'</b>
';

$s_name ='xyz';
echo":s_name: <b>".$s_name.'</b>
';

echo'
';

try{
$stmt = $db->prepare($sql);

$stmt->bindParam(':s_name', $s_name, PDO::PARAM_STR);
$stmt->execute();

$result = $stmt->fetchAll();
foreach($result as $row)
{
echo $row['s_name'].' - '. $row['f_name'].'
';
}
}catch(PDOException $e){
echo $e->getMessage();
}
echo'
';

$sql ="SELECT * FROM code WHERE s_name NOT LIKE :s_name";
echo"Executing SQL: <b>".$sql.'</b>
';

$s_name ='X';
echo":s_name: <b>".$s_name.'</b>
';

echo'
';

try{
$stmt = $db->prepare($sql);

$stmt->bindParam(':s_name', $s_name, PDO::PARAM_STR);
$stmt->execute();

$result = $stmt->fetchAll();
foreach($result as $row)
{
echo $row['s_name'].' - '. $row['f_name'].'
';
}
$stmt->closeCursor();
}catch(PDOException $e){
echo $e->getMessage();
}
echo'
';

$db = null;//disconnect
?>

The output of the script is as follows:

Executing SQL: SELECT * FROM code WHERE s_name NOT LIKE :s_name
:s_name: xyz

X - Mixed
W - Woman
M - Man
B - Bronze
S - Silver
G - Gold

Executing SQL: SELECT * FROM code WHERE s_name NOT LIKE :s_name
:s_name: X

W - Woman
M - Man
B - Bronze
S - Silver
G - Gold

Using the PDO::getAttribute() Function

The PDO::getAttribute () function is very useful to retrieve the database connection attributes. For example,

  • Driver name
  • Database version
  • Auto-commit state
  • Error mode

Note that if you want to set attributes values (assuming that they are writable), you should use the PDO::setAttribute function.

The following example script shows how to retrieve the current versions of client and server by using the PDO::getAttribute () function.

<?php
include("_db_config.php");
include("_db_connect.php");

echo"Driver name: <b>".$db->getAttribute(PDO::ATTR_DRIVER_NAME)."</b>";
echo"
";
echo"Client version: <b>".$db->getAttribute(PDO::ATTR_CLIENT_VERSION)."</b>";
echo"
";
echo"Server version: <b>".$db->getAttribute(PDO::ATTR_SERVER_VERSION)."</b>";
echo"
";

$db = null;//disconnect
?>

The output of the script is as follows:

Driver name: cubrid
Client version: 8.3.0
Server version: 8.3.0.0337

CUBRID PDO Extensions

In CUBRID, the PDO::cubrid_schema() function is offered as an extension; the function is used to retrieve the database schema and metadata information. Below is an example script that returns information about primary key for the nation table by using this function.

<?php
include("_db_config.php");
include("_db_connect.php");
try{
echo"Get PRIMARY KEY for table: <b>nation</b>:

";
$pk_list = $db->cubrid_schema(PDO::CUBRID_SCH_PRIMARY_KEY,"nation");
print_r($pk_list);
}catch(PDOException $e){
echo $e->getMessage();
}

$db = null;//disconnect
?>

The output of the script is as follows:

Get PRIMARY KEY for table: nation:
Array ( [0] => Array ( [CLASS_NAME] => nation [ATTR_NAME] => code [KEY_SEQ] => 1 [KEY_NAME] => pk_nation_code ) )

PDO API

For more information about PHP Data Objects (PDO) API, see http://docs.php.net/manual/en/book.pdo.php. The API provided by CUBRID PDO driver is as follows:

For more information about CUBRID PDO API provides, see http://ftp.cubrid.org/CUBRID_Docs/Drivers/PDO/.