For arithmetic operators, there are binary operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division, and unary operators to represent whether the number is positive or negative. The unary operators to represent the numbers' positive/negative status have higher priority over the binary operators.
Arithmetic Operators Supported by CUBRID
Arithmetic Operator | Description | Operator | Return Value | ||
---|---|---|---|---|
+ | Addition | 1+2 | 3 | ||
- | Subtraction | 1-2 | -1 | |
* | Multiplication | 1*2 | 2 | |
/ | Division. Returns quotient. | 1/2.0 | 0.500000000 | |
DIV | Division. Returns quotient. | 1 DIV 2 | 0 | |
% , MOD | Division. Returns quotient. An operator must be an integer type, and it always returns integer. If an operand is real number, the MOD function can be used. | 1 % 2 1 MOD 2 | 1 |
expression mathematical_operator expression
expression :
• bit string
• character string
• numeric value
• date-time value
• collection value
• NULL
mathematical_operator :
• set_arithmetic_operator
• arithmetic_operator
arithmetic_operator :
• +
• -
• *
• /, DIV
• %, MOD
set_arithmetic_operator :
• UNION (Union)
• DIFFERENCE (Difference)
• INTERSECT | INTERSECTION (Intersection)
All numeric data types can be used for arithmetic operations. The result type of the operation differs depending on the data types of the operands and the type of the operation. The following table shows the result data types of addition/subtraction/multiplication for each operand type.
Result Data Type by Operand Type
INT | NUMERIC | FLOAT | DOUBLE | MONETARY | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
INT | INT ( BIGINT ) | NUMERIC | FLOAT | DOUBLE | MONETARY |
NUMERIC | NUMERIC | NUMERIC ( p and s are also converted) | DOUBLE | DOUBLE | MONETARY |
FLOAT | FLOAT | DOUBLE | FLOAT | DOUBLE | MONETARY |
DOUBLE | DOUBLE | DOUBLE | DOUBLE | DOUBLE | MONETARY |
MONETARY | MONETARY | MONETARY | MONETARY | MONETARY | MONETARY |
Note that the result type of the operation does not change if all operands are of the same data type but type casting occurs exceptionally in division operations. An error occurs when a denominator, i.e. a divisor, is 0.
If one of the operands is a MONETARY type, all operation results are cast to MONETARY type because a MONETARY type uses the same operation methods as the DOUBLE type.
The following table shows the total number of digits (p) and the number of digits after the decimal point (s) of the operation results when all operands are of the NUMERIC type.
Result of NUMERIC Type Operation
Operation | Maximum Precision | Maximum Scale |
---|---|---|
N(p1, s1) + N(p2, s2) | max(p1-s1, p2-s2)+max(s1, s2) +1 | max(s1, s2) |
N(p1, s1) - N(p2, s2) | max(p1-s1, p2-s2)+max(s1, s2) | max(s1, s2) |
N(p1, s1) * N(p2, s2) | p1+p2+1 | s1+s2 |
N(p1, s1) / N(p2, s2) | Let Pt = p1+max(s1, s2) + s2 - s1 when s2 > 0 and Pt = p1 in other cases; St = s1 when s1 > s2 and s2 in other cases; | the number of decimal places is min(9-St, 38-Pt) + St when St < 9 and St in other cases. | |
Example
--int * int
SELECT 123*123;
123*123
=============
15129
-- int * int returns overflow error
SELECT (1234567890123*1234567890123);
ERROR: Data overflow on data type bigint.
-- int * numeric returns numeric type
SELECT (1234567890123*CAST(1234567890123 AS NUMERIC(15,2)));
(1234567890123* cast(1234567890123 as numeric(15,2)))
======================
1524157875322755800955129.00
-- int * float returns float type
SELECT (1234567890123*CAST(1234567890123 AS FLOAT));
(1234567890123* cast(1234567890123 as float))
===============================================
1.524158e+024
-- int * double returns double type
SELECT (1234567890123*CAST(1234567890123 AS DOUBLE));
(1234567890123* cast(1234567890123 as double))
================================================
1.524157875322756e+024
-- numeric * numeric returns numeric type
SELECT (CAST(1234567890123 AS NUMERIC(15,2))*CAST(1234567890123 AS NUMERIC(15,2)));
( cast(1234567890123 as numeric(15,2))* cast(1234567890123 as numeric(15,2)))
======================
1524157875322755800955129.0000
-- numeric * float returns double type
SELECT (CAST(1234567890123 AS NUMERIC(15,2))*CAST(1234567890123 AS FLOAT));
( cast(1234567890123 as numeric(15,2))* cast(1234567890123 as float))
=======================================================================
1.524157954716582e+024
-- numeric * double returns double type
SELECT (CAST(1234567890123 AS NUMERIC(15,2))*CAST(1234567890123 AS DOUBLE));
( cast(1234567890123 as numeric(15,2))* cast(1234567890123 as double))
========================================================================
1.524157875322756e+024
-- float * float returns float type
SELECT (CAST(1234567890123 AS FLOAT)*CAST(1234567890123 AS FLOAT));
( cast(1234567890123 as float)* cast(1234567890123 as float))
===============================================================
1.524158e+024
-- float * double returns float type
SELECT (CAST(1234567890123 AS FLOAT)*CAST(1234567890123 AS DOUBLE));
( cast(1234567890123 as float)* cast(1234567890123 as double))
================================================================
1.524157954716582e+024
-- double * double returns float type
SELECT (CAST(1234567890123 AS DOUBLE)*CAST(1234567890123 AS DOUBLE));
( cast(1234567890123 as double)* cast(1234567890123 as double))
=================================================================
1.524157875322756e+024
-- int / int returns int type without type conversion or rounding
SELECT 100100/100000;
100100/100000
===============
1
-- int / int returns int type without type conversion or rounding
SELECT 100100/200200;
100100/200200
===============
0
-- int / zero returns error
SELECT 100100/(100100-100100);
ERROR: Attempt to divide by zero.
If all operands are date/time type, only a subtraction operation is allowed and its return value is BIGINT . Note that the unit of the operation differs depending on the types of the operands. Both addition and subtraction operations are allowed in case of date/time and integer types In this case, operation units and return values are date/time data type.
The following table shows operations allowed for each operand type, and their result types.
Allowable Operation and Result Data Type by Operand Type
TIME (in seconds) | DATE (in day) | TIMESTAMP (in seconds) | DATETIME (in milliseconds) | INT | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
TIME | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | X | X | X | An addition and a subtraction are allowed. TIME |
DATE | X | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | An addition and a subtraction are allowed. DATE |
TIMESTAMP | X | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | An addition and a subtraction are allowed. TIMESTAMP |
DATETIME | X | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | A subtraction is allowed. BIGINT | An addition and a subtraction are allowed. DATETIME |
INT | An addition and a subtraction are allowed. TIME | An addition and a subtraction are allowed. DATE | An addition and a subtraction are allowed. TIMESTAMP | An addition and a subtraction are allowed. DATETIME | All operations are allowed. |
Note
If any of the date/time arguments contains NULL, NULL is returned.
Example
-- initial systimestamp value
SELECT SYSDATETIME;
SYSDATETIME
===============================
07:09:52.115 PM 01/14/2010
-- time type + 10(seconds) returns time type
SELECT (CAST (SYSDATETIME AS TIME) + 10);
( cast( SYS_DATETIME as time)+10)
====================================
07:10:02 PM
-- date type + 10 (days) returns date type
SELECT (CAST (SYSDATETIME AS DATE) + 10);
( cast( SYS_DATETIME as date)+10)
====================================
01/24/2010
-- timestamp type + 10(seconds) returns timestamp type
SELECT (CAST (SYSDATETIME AS TIMESTAMP) + 10);
( cast( SYS_DATETIME as timestamp)+10)
=========================================
07:10:02 PM 01/14/2010
-- systimestamp type + 10(milliseconds) returns systimestamp type
SELECT (SYSDATETIME + 10);
( SYS_DATETIME +10)
===============================
07:09:52.125 PM 01/14/2010
SELECT DATETIME '09/01/2009 03:30:30.001 pm'- TIMESTAMP '08/31/2009 03:30:30 pm';
datetime '09/01/2009 03:30:30.001 pm'-timestamp '08/31/2009 03:30:30 pm'
=======================================
86400001
SELECT TIMESTAMP '09/01/2009 03:30:30 pm'- TIMESTAMP '08/31/2009 03:30:30 pm';
timestamp '09/01/2009 03:30:30 pm'-timestamp '08/31/2009 03:30:30 pm'
=======================================
86400