To execute SQL statements in CUBRID, you need to use either a Graphical User Interface(GUI)-based CUBRID Query Browser or a console-based CSQL Interpreter. CSQL is an application that allows users to use SQL statements through a command-driven interface. This section briefly explains how to use the CSQL Interpreter and associated commands.
A Tool for SQL
The CSQL Interpreter is an application installed with CUBRID that allows you to execute in an interactive or batch mode and viewing query results. The CSQL Interpreter has a command-line interface. With this, you can store SQL statements together with their results to a file for a later use.
The CSQL Interpreter provides the best and easiest way to use CUBRID. You can develop database applications with various APIs (e.g. JDBC, ODBC, PHP, CCI, etc.; you can use the CUBRID Manager, which is a management and query tool provided by CUBRID. With the CSQL Interpreter, users can create and retrieve data in a terminal-based environment.
The CSQL Interpreter directly connects to a CUBRID database and executes various tasks using SQL statements. Using the CSQL Interpreter, you can:
A Tool for DBA
A database administrator(DBA) performs administrative tasks by using various administrative utilities provided by CUBRID; a terminal-based interface of CSQL Interpreter is an environment where DBA executes administrative tasks.
It is also possible to run the CSQL Interpreter in standalone mode. In this mode, the CSQL Interpreter directly accesses database files and executes commands including server process properties. That is, SQL statements can be executed to a database without running a separate database server process. The CSQL Interpreter is a powerful tool that allows you to use the database only with a csql utility, without any other applications such as the database server or the brokers.
With CSQL Interpreter, you can enter and execute SQL statements to handle schema and data in the database. Enter statements in a prompt that appears when running the csql utility. After executing the statements, the results are listed in the next line. This is called the interactive mode.
You can store SQL statements in a file and execute them later to have the csql utility read the file. This is called the batch mode..
In the standalone mode, CSQL Interpreter directly accesses database files and executes commands including server process functions. That is, SQL statements can be sent and executed to a database without a separate database server process running for the task. Since the standalone mode allows only one user access at a given time, it is suitable for management tasks by Database Administrators (DBAs).
CSQL Interpreter usually operates as a client process and accesses the server process.
System Administration Mode
You can use this mode when you run checkpoint through CSQL interpreter or exit the transaction monitoring. Also, it allows one connection on CSQL interpreter even if the server access count exceeds the value of max_client system parameter. In this mode, allowed connection count by CSQL interpreter is only one.
csql -u dba --sysadm demodb
Connecting to Local Host
Execute the CSQL Interpreter using the csql utility. You can set options as needed. To set the options, specify the name of the database to connect to as a parameter. The following is a csql utility statement to access the database on a local server:
csql [options] database_name
Connecting to Remote Host
The following is a csql utility syntax to access the database on a remote host:
csql [options] database_name@remote_host_name
Make sure that the following conditions are met before you run the CSQL Interpreter on a remote host.
The following example shows how to access the demodb database on the remote host with the IP address 192.168.1.3 and calls the csql utility.
csql -C email@example.com
To display the option list in the prompt, execute the csql utilities without specifying the database name as follows:
$ csql A database-name is missing. interactive SQL utility, version 9.1 usage: csql [OPTION] database-name[@host] valid options: -S, --SA-mode standalone mode execution -C, --CS-mode client-server mode execution -u, --user=ARG alternate user name -p, --password=ARG password string, give "" for none -e, --error-continue don't exit on statement error -i, --input-file=ARG input-file-name -o, --output-file=ARG output-file-name -s, --single-line single line oriented execution -c, --command=ARG CSQL-commands -l, --line-output display each value in a line -r, --read-only read-only mode --string-width display each column which is a string type in this width --no-auto-commit disable auto commit mode execution --no-pager do not use pager --no-single-line turn off single line oriented execution For additional information, see http://www.cubrid.com
The following example shows how to connect to a database in standalone mode and execute the csql utility. If you want to use the database exclusively, use the -S option. If both -S and -C options are omitted, the -C option will be specified.
csql -S demodb
The following example shows how to connect to a database in client/server mode and execute the csql utility. In an environment where multiple clients connect to the database, use the -C option. Even when you connect to a database on a remote host in client/server mode, the error log created during csql execution will be stored in the cub.err file on the local host.
csql -C demodb
The following example shows how to specify the name of the input file that will be used in a batch mode with the -i option. In the infile file, more than one SQL statement is stored. Without the -i option specified, the CSQL Interpreter will run in an interactive mode.
csql -i infile demodb
The following example shows how to store the execution results to the specified file instead of displaying on the screen. It is useful to retrieve the results of the query performed by the CSQL Interpreter afterwards.
csql -o outfile demodb
The following example shows how to specify the name of the user that will connect to the specified database with the -u option. If the -u option is not specified, PUBLIC that has the lowest level of authorization will be specified as a user. If the user name is not valid, an error message is displayed and the csql utility is terminated. If there is a password for the user name you specify, you will be prompted to enter the password. :
csql -u DBA demodb
The following example shows how to enter the password of the user specified with the -p option. Especially since there is no prompt to enter a password for the user you specify in a batch mode, you must enter the password using the -p option. When you enter an incorrect password, an error message is displayed and the csql utility is terminated. :
csql -u DBA -p *** demodb
As an option used with the -i option, it executes multiple SQL statement one by one in a file with the -s option. This option is useful to allocate less memory for query execution and each SQL statement is separated by semicolons (;). If it is not specified, multiple SQL statements are retrieved and executed at once.
csql -s -i infile demodb
The following example shows how to execute more than one SQL statement from the shell with the -c option. Multiple statements are separated by semicolons (;). :
csql -c "select * from olympic;select * from stadium" demodb
With -l option, you can display the values of SELECT lists by line. If -l option is omitted, all SELECT lists of the result record are displayed in one line. :
csql -l demodb
The following example shows how to ignore errors and keep execution even though semantic or runtime errors occur with the -e option. However, if any SQL statements have syntax errors, query execution stops after errors occur despite specifying the -e option.
$ csql -e demodb csql> SELECT * FROM aaa;SELECT * FROM athlete WHERE code=10000; In line 1, column 1, ERROR: before ' ;SELECT * FROM athlete WHERE code=10000; ' Unknown class "aaa". === <Result of SELECT Command in Line 1> === code name gender nation_code event ===================================================================================================== 10000 'Aardewijn Pepijn' 'M' 'NED' 'Rowing' 1 row selected. Current transaction has been committed. 1 command(s) successfully processed.
You can connect to the read-only database with the -r option. Retrieving data is only allowed in the read-only database; creating databases and entering data are not allowed.
csql -r demodb
The following example shows how to stop the auto-commit mode with the --no-auto-commit option. If you don't configure --no-auto-commit option, the CSQL Interpreter runs in an auto-commit mode by default, and the SQL statement is committed automatically at every execution. Executing the ;AUtocommit session command after starting the CSQL Interpreter will also have the same result. :
csql --no-auto-commit demodb
The following example shows how to display the execution results by the CSQL Interpreter at once instead of page-by-page with the --no-pager option. The results will be output page-by-page if --no-pager option is not specified. :
csql --no-pager demodb
The following example shows how to keep storing multiple SQL statements and execute them at once with the ;xr or ;r session command. If you do not specify this option, SQL statements are executed without ;xr or ;r session command.
csql --no-single-line demodb
In addition to SQL statements, CSQL Interpreter provides special commands allowing you to control the Interpreter. These commands are called session commands. All the session commands must start with a semicolon (;).
Enter the ;help command to display a list of the session commands available in the CSQL Interpreter. Note that only the uppercase letters of each session command are required to make the CSQL Interpreter to recognize it. Session commands are not case-sensitive.
"Query buffer" is a buffer to store the query before running it. If you run CSQL as giving the --no-single-line option, the query string is kept on the buffer until running ;xr command.
Reading SQL statements from a file (;REAd)
The ;REAd command reads the contents of a file into the buffer. This command is used to execute SQL commands stored in the specified file. To view the contents of the file loaded into the buffer, use the ;List command.
csql> ;read nation.sql The file has been read into the command buffer. csql> ;list insert into "sport_event" ("event_code", "event_name", "gender_type", "num_player") values (20001, 'Archery Individual', 'M', 1); insert into "sport_event" ("event_code", "event_name", "gender_type", "num_player") values 20002, 'Archery Individual', 'W', 1); ....
Storing SQL statements into a file (;Write)
The ;Write command stores the contents of the query buffer into a file. This command is used to store queries that you entered or modified in the CSQL Interpreter.
csql> ;write outfile Command buffer has been saved.
Appending to a file (;APpend)
This command appends the contents of the current query buffer to an outfile file.
csql> ;append outfile Command buffer has been saved.
Executing a shell command (;SHELL)
The ;SHELL session command calls an external shell. Starts a new shell in the environment where the CSQL Interpreter is running. It returns to the CSQL Interpreter when the shell terminates. If the shell command to execute with the ;SHELL_Cmd command has been specified, it starts the shell, executes the specified command, and returns to the CSQL Interpreter.
csql> ;shell % ls -al total 2088 drwxr-xr-x 16 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:51 . drwxr-xr-x 6 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:17 .. drwxr-xr-x 2 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 02:49 audit drwxr-xr-x 2 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:17 bin drwxr-xr-x 2 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:17 conf drwxr-xr-x 4 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:14 cubridmanager % exit csql>
Registering a shell command (;SHELL_Cmd)
The ;SHELL_Cmd command registers a shell command to execute with the SHELL session command. As shown in the example below, enter the ;shell command to execute the registered command.
csql> ;shell_c ls -la csql> ;shell total 2088 drwxr-xr-x 16 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:51 . drwxr-xr-x 6 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:17 .. drwxr-xr-x 2 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 02:49 audit drwxr-xr-x 2 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:17 bin drwxr-xr-x 2 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:17 conf drwxr-xr-x 4 DBA cubrid 4096 Jul 29 16:14 cubridmanager csql>
Registering a pager command (;PAger_cmd)
The ;PAger_cmd command registers a pager command to display the query result. The way of displaying is decided by the registered command. The default is more. Also cat and less can be used. But ;Pager_cmd command works well only on Linux.
When you register pager command as more, the query result shows by page and wait until you press the space key.
When you register pager command as cat, the query result shows all in one display without paging.
When you redirect the output with a file, the total query result will be written on the file.
csql>;pager cat > output.txt
If you register pager command as less, you can forward, backward the query result. Also pattern matching on the query result is possible.
The keyboard commands used on the less are as follows.
Changing the current working directory (;CD)
This command changes the current working directory where the CSQL Interpreter is running to the specified directory. If you don't specify the path, the directory will be changed to the home directory.
csql> ;cd /home1/DBA/CUBRID Current directory changed to /home1/DBA/CUBRID.
Exiting the CSQL Interpreter (;EXit)
This command exits the CSQL Interpreter.
Clearing the query buffer (;CLear)
The ;CLear session command clears the contents of the query buffer.
csql> ;clear csql> ;list
Displaying the contents of the query buffer (;List)
The ;List session command lists the contents of the query buffer that have been entered or modified. The query buffer can be modified by ;READ or ;Edit command.
Executing SQL statements (;RUn)
This command executes SQL statements in the query buffer. Unlike the ;Xrun session command described below, the buffer will not be cleared even after the query execution. :
Clearing the query buffer after executing the SQL statement (;Xrun)
This command executes SQL statements in the query buffer. The buffer will be cleared after the query execution. :
Committing transaction (;COmmit)
This command commits the current transaction. You must enter a commit command explicitly if it is not in auto-commit mode. In auto-commit mode, transactions are automatically committed whenever SQL is executed.
csql> ;commit Current transaction has been committed.
Rolling back transaction (;ROllback)
This command rolls back the current transaction. Like a commit command (;COmmit), it must enter a rollback command explicitly if it is not in auto-commit mode (OFF).
csql> ;rollback Current transaction has been rolled back.
Setting the auto-commit mode (;AUtocommit)
This command sets auto-commit mode to ON or OFF. If any value is not specified, current configured value is applied by default. The default value is ON.
csql> ;autocommit off AUTOCOMMIT IS OFF
CHeckpoint Execution (;CHeckpoint)
This command executes the checkpoint within the CSQL session. This command can only be executed when a DBA group member, who is specified for the custom option (-u user_name), connects to the CSQL Interpreter in system administrator mode (--sysadm).
Checkpoint is an operation of flushing all dirty pages within the current data buffer to disks. You can also change the checkpoint interval using a command (;set parameter_name value) to set the parameter values in the CSQL session. You can see the examples of the parameter related to the checkpoint execution interval (checkpoint_interval_in_mins and checkpoint_every_npages). For more information, see Logging-Related Parameters.
csql> ;checkpoint Checkpoint has been issued.
Transaction Monitoring Or Termination (;Killtran)
This command checks the transaction status information or terminates a specific transaction in the CSQL session. This command prints out the status information of all transactions on the screen if a parameter is omitted it terminates the transaction if a specific transaction ID is specified for the parameter. It can only be executed when a DBA group member, who is specified for the custom option (-u user_name), connects to the CSQL Interpreter in system administrator mode (--sysadm).
csql> ;killtran Tran index User name Host name Process id Program name ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1(+) dba myhost 664 cub_cas 2(+) dba myhost 6700 csql 3(+) dba myhost 2188 cub_cas 4(+) dba myhost 696 csql 5(+) public myhost 6944 csql csql> ;killtran 3 The specified transaction has been killed.
Restarting database (;REStart)
A command that tries to reconnect to the target database in a CSQL session. Note that when you execute the CSQL Interpreter in CS (client/server) mode, it will be disconnected from the server. When the connection to the server is lost due to a HA failure and failover to another server occurs, this command is particularly useful in connecting to the switched server while maintaining the current session.
csql> ;restart The database has been restarted.
Displaying the current date (;DATE)
The ;DATE command displays the current date and time in the CSQL Interpreter. :
csql> ;date Tue July 29 18:58:12 KST 2008
Displaying the database information (;DATAbase)
This command displays the database name and host name where the CSQL Interpreter is working. If the database is running, the HA mode (one of those followings: active, standby, or maintenance) will be displayed as well.
csql> ;database demodb@cubridhost (active)
Displaying schema information of a class (;SChema)
The ;SChema session command displays schema information of the specified table. The information includes the table name, its column name and constraints.
csql> ;schema event === <Help: Schema of a Class> === <Class Name> event <Attributes> code INTEGER NOT NULL sports CHARACTER VARYING(50) name CHARACTER VARYING(50) gender CHARACTER(1) players INTEGER <Constraints> PRIMARY KEY pk_event_event_code ON event (code)
Displaying the trigger (;TRriger)
This command searches and displays the trigger specified. If there is no trigger name specified, all the triggers defined will be displayed. :
csql> ;trigger === <Help: All Triggers> === trig_delete_contents
Checking the parameter value(;Get)
You can check the parameter value currently set in the CSQL Interpreter using the ;Get session command. An error occurs if the parameter name specified is incorrect. :
csql> ;get isolation_level === Get Param Input === isolation_level=4
Setting the parameter value (;SEt)
You can use the ;Set session command to set a specific parameter value. Note that changeable parameter values are only can be changed. To change the server parameter values, you must have DBA authorization. For information on list of changeable parameters, see Broker Configuration.
csql> ;set block_ddl_statement=1 === Set Param Input === block_ddl_statement=1 -- Dynamically change the log_max_archives value in the csql accessed by dba account csql> ;set log_max_archives=5
Setting the output width of string (;STring-width)
You can use the ;STring-width command to set the output width of character string or BIT string.
;string-width session command without a length shows the current setting length. When it is set to 0, the columns will be displayed as it is. If it sets greater than 0, the string typed columns will be displayed with the specified length.
csql> SELECT name FROM NATION WHERE NAME LIKE 'Ar%'; 'Arab Republic of Egypt' 'Aruba' 'Armenia' 'Argentina' csql> ;string-width 5 csql> SELECT name FROM NATION WHERE NAME LIKE 'Ar%'; 'Arab ' 'Aruba' 'Armen' 'Argen' csql> ;string-width STRING-WIDTH : 5
Setting the output width of the column (;COLumn-width)
You can use the ;COLumn-width command to set the output width regardless of its data types. If you don't give a value after ;COL command, it shows the current setting length. When it sets to 0, the columns will be displayed as it is. If it sets to greater than 0, the columns will be displayed with the specified length.
csql> CREATE TABLE tbl(a BIGINT, b BIGINT); csql> INSERT INTO tbl VALUES(12345678890, 1234567890) csql> ;column-width a=5 csql> SELECT * FROM tbl; 12345 1234567890 csql> ;column-width COLUMN-WIDTH a : 5
Setting the view level of executing query plan (;PLan)
You can use the ;PLan session command to set the view level of executing query plan the level is composed of simple, detail, and off. Each command refers to the following:
Displaying information (;Info)
The ;Info session command allows you to check information such as schema, triggers, the working environment, locks and statistics. :
csql> ;info lock *** Lock Table Dump *** Lock Escalation at = 100000, Run Deadlock interval = 1 Transaction (index 0, unknown, unknown@unknown|-1) Isolation REPEATABLE CLASSES AND READ UNCOMMITTED INSTANCES State TRAN_ACTIVE Timeout_period -1 ......
Dumping CSQL execution statistics information(;.Hist)
This command is a CSQL session command for starting to collect the statistics information in CSQL. The information is collected only for the currently connected CSQL after ";.Hist on" command is entered. Following options are provided for this session command.
This command is executable while the communication_histogram parameter in the cubrid.conf file is set to yes. You can also view this information by using the cubrid statdump utility.
After running ";.Hist on", the execution commands such as ;.dump_hist or ;.x must be entered to output the statistics information. After ;.dump_hist or ;.x, all accumulated informations are dumped and initiated.
As a reference, you should use cubrid statdump utility to check all queries' statistics information of a database server.
This example shows the server statistics information for current connection. For information on dumped specific items or cubrid statdump command, see Dumping Statistics Information of Server.
csql> ;.hist on csql> ;.x Histogram of client requests: Name Rcount Sent size Recv size , Server time No server requests made *** CLIENT EXECUTION STATISTICS *** System CPU (sec) = 0 User CPU (sec) = 0 Elapsed (sec) = 20 *** SERVER EXECUTION STATISTICS *** Num_file_creates = 0 Num_file_removes = 0 Num_file_ioreads = 0 Num_file_iowrites = 0 Num_file_iosynches = 0 Num_data_page_fetches = 56 Num_data_page_dirties = 14 Num_data_page_ioreads = 0 Num_data_page_iowrites = 0 Num_data_page_victims = 0 Num_data_page_iowrites_for_replacement = 0 Num_log_page_ioreads = 0 Num_log_page_iowrites = 0 Num_log_append_records = 0 Num_log_archives = 0 Num_log_checkpoints = 0 Num_log_wals = 0 Num_page_locks_acquired = 2 Num_object_locks_acquired = 2 Num_page_locks_converted = 0 Num_object_locks_converted = 0 Num_page_locks_re-requested = 0 Num_object_locks_re-requested = 1 Num_page_locks_waits = 0 Num_object_locks_waits = 0 Num_tran_commits = 1 Num_tran_rollbacks = 0 Num_tran_savepoints = 0 Num_tran_start_topops = 3 Num_tran_end_topops = 3 Num_tran_interrupts = 0 Num_btree_inserts = 0 Num_btree_deletes = 0 Num_btree_updates = 0 Num_btree_covered = 0 Num_btree_noncovered = 0 Num_btree_resumes = 0 Num_query_selects = 1 Num_query_inserts = 0 Num_query_deletes = 0 Num_query_updates = 0 Num_query_sscans = 1 Num_query_iscans = 0 Num_query_lscans = 0 Num_query_setscans = 0 Num_query_methscans = 0 Num_query_nljoins = 0 Num_query_mjoins = 0 Num_query_objfetches = 0 Num_network_requests = 8 Num_adaptive_flush_pages = 0 Num_adaptive_flush_log_pages = 0 Num_adaptive_flush_max_pages = 0 *** OTHER STATISTICS *** Data_page_buffer_hit_ratio = 100.00 csql> ;.hist off
Displaying query execution time (;TIme)
The ;TIme session command can be set to display the elapsed time to execute the query. It can be set to ON or OFF. The current setting is displayed if there is no value specified. The default value is ON.
The SELECT query includes the time of outputting the fetched records. Therefore, to check the execution time of complete output of all records in the SELECT query, use the --no-pager option while executing the CSQC interpreter.
$ csql -u dba --no-pager demodb csql> ;time ON csql> ;time TIME IS ON
Displaying a column of result record in one line(;LINe-output)
If this value is set to ON, it would make the record display in several lines by column. The default value is OFF, which makes one record display in one line.
csql> ;line-output OFF csql> select * from athlete; === <Result of SELECT Command in Line 1> === <00001> code : 10999 name : 'Fernandez Jesus' gender : 'M' nation_code: 'ESP' event : 'Handball' <00002> code : 10998 name : 'Fernandez Jaime' gender : 'M' nation_code: 'AUS' event : 'Rowing' ...
Displaying query history (;HISTORYList)
This command displays the list that contains previously executed commands (input) and their history numbers. :
csql> ;historylist ----< 1 >---- select * from nation; ----< 2 >---- select * from athlete;
Reading input with the specified history number into the buffer (;HISTORYRead)
You can use ;HISTORYRead session command to read input with history number in the ;HISTORYList list into the command buffer. You can enter ;run or ;xrun directly because it has the same effect as when you enter SQL statements directly. :
csql> ;historyread 1
Calling the default editor (;EDIT)
This command calls the specified editor. The default editor is vi on Linux Notepad on Windows environment. Use ;EDITOR_Cmd command to specify a different editor. :
Specifying the editor (;EDITOR_Cmd)
This command specifies the editor to be used with ;EDIT session command. As shown in the example below, you can specify other editor (ex: emacs) which is installed in the system.
csql> ;editor_cmd emacs csql> ;edit